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Part 1 Critical Reasoning

Categorical Discussion Prompt Reply to each Peer

Categorical Discussion Reply 1 Shavell:

Categorical Proposition

The four types of Categorial propositions are the following:

A – Claims: = Affirmative: All dogs bark

E – Claims: = Negative: No fruit is vegetables

I – Claims: = Affirmative: Some hygienist clean teeth great

O – Claims: = Negative: Some hygienist doesn’t clean teeth great

Why is it important to understand categorical logic?

Response: Its important to understand categorical logic, for daily conversating, in any aspect of a conversation weather its argumentative, sarcastic, defensive, friendly, just daily it’s a good skill to have, when your using good comprehension skills and understanding. According to (Moore&Parker), “Categorical logic is based on the relations of conclusion and exclusion among classes for (Categories).” Also stating, “Categorical logic is useful in clarifying and analyzing deductive arguments. But there is another reason for studying the subject: there is no better way to understand the underlying logical structure of our everyday language than to learn how to put it in the kinds of formal terms.”

Provide some examples of how you can apply these lessons to your personal and professional life.

Response: You can apply these lessons in your personal and professional life, when your being addressed in a confusing manner, and you are trying to analyze and follow along in the conversation when someone, rather in personal or professional life are trying to be tricky, deceitful, and doing in a condescending way, these lessons can be used as a defense mechanism to reply and respond back adequately in the conversation.


Brooke, M. & Richard, P. (2017). Critical Thinking [12th ed]. Retrieved from https://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/1260184714/…

Categorical Discussion Reply 2 Tamila:

An example of each categorical logic that I came across after reading chapter 9 and watching the video for week 5 were:

Universal Affirmative (A)- All Suns are stars

Universal Negative (E)- No fish are birds

Particular Affirmative (I)- Some Americans are Californians

Particular Negative (O)- Some athletes are not basketball players





Categorical Propositions are informational content of a sentence. “All cats are mammals” is an example given and the sentence has a subject term and a predicate term(Moore, 2017). The proposition relates two classes and each class is represented by a categorical term, normally containing a subject and predicate just as the given example states above. Critical thinking chapter 9 shows the Venn Diagram named after a British logician John Venn (p. 245). The graph represents the four categories addressed above.

It is important to understand the claims and the logic to each proposition and class. I could apply the logics to lessons to my personal life by simply thinking critically about the content of the statement relating to knowing the subject and predicate. For an example, A Universal Affirmative that all suns are stars and Universal Negative that no fish are birds, knowing the difference and being able to understand which category the statement or claim falls upon.


Moore, B. N., & Parker, R. (2017). Critical thinking. New Yo4k, NY, United States of America: McGraw-Hill Education.

Part 2 Psychology

Intelligence controversy Discussion 1 Reply Joni:

Thanks for your discussion on the intelligence controversy, especially in the benefits of understanding one’s learning preferences. Traditionally IQ tests were used to assess a student’s academic needs, but often the end result was a label being applied (e.g. gifted, special needs, etc.).What are some of the positive and negative long term impacts of such labels? Explain.


Intelligence controversy Discussion 1 Reply Mayda:

Excellent post this week! In your response you provided some insight regarding how psychologists can use multiple intelligences for fostering communication in the therapeutic process. I had not considered this. However, it would indeed seem that each of the types of intelligences identified by Gardner is accompanied by a unique method of expression for the individual. Psychologists who recognize this difference may be able to find novel ways to communicate with clients and further to facilitate the ability of clients to better express their needs in the therapeutic setting.

Pearson, O’Brian, and Bulsara (2015) consider the use of multiple intelligences in the counseling relationship, noting that when therapists utilize this theory it is possible to focus on the strengths of the client. Most patients seeking therapy can be vulnerable, making a focus on strengths an important foundation for enhancing well-being (Pearson et al., 2015). What this seems to suggest is that by using multiple intelligences in practice, therapists can support the client in unique ways that extend far beyond verbal communication. In this context, it would seem that there are various reasons to consider implementing this paradigm in practice.


Pearson, M., O’Brien, P., & Bulsara, C. (2015). A multiple intelligences approach to counseling: Enhancing alliances with a focus on strengths. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 25(1), 128-142. doi: 10.1037/a0038881

Theory of Emotion Discussion 2 Reply Selene:

Emotions are feelings that generally have both psychological and cognitive elements and that influence behavior (Feldman, 2017). In this week’s reading, there were three theories of emotion given: the James-Lang theory, Cannon-Bard theory, and Schachter-Singer theory (Feldman, 2017). The theory I most subscribe to is the Schachter-Singer theory of emotion. This theory emphasizes that we identify the emotion we are experiencing by observing our environment and comparing ourselves to others (Schachter and Singer , 1962. pg. 319). My emotions can change based on my surroundings and what is going on.

If emotion were to become controlled, ethical concerns would arise as everyone’s personal characteristics would be gone and everyone would act and feel the same. If researchers could control emotional responses, the outcomes would not be individualized as everyone’s emotions would be altered to get a specific response.

References: Feldman, R. (2017) Understanding Psychology (13th Ed.) Mc-Graw Hill

Theory of Emotion Discussion 2 Reply Georgina:

Emotions are feelings that generally have both physiological and cognitive elements and influence behavior. Emotion is on complex psychophysiological experience that we experience, also result of our intersection with our environment. Sometimes we might hear good news from the radio or friends, the way we respond is part of emotion it may be positive or negative. For example: positive emotions can be linked through an event, social emotion, and self-appraisal emotion. Different theories exist regarding how and why people experience emotion. The James-Lange theory is one of the best-known examples of physiological theory of emotion. The theory states that after we perceive an emotion-producing stimulus, the thalamus is the initial site of the emotional response. Next, the thalamus sends a signal to the autonomic nervous system, thereby producing a visceral response. At the same time, the thalamus also communicates a message to the cerebral cortex regarding the nature of the emotion being experienced. Hence, it is not necessary for different emotions to have unique physiological patterns associated with them—as long as the message sent to the cerebral cortex differs according to the specific emotion, (Feldman, 2017).

The researchers learned how to control emotional responses so that targeted emotions could be caused or prevented. An ethical concerned must arise by using these techniques: Emotional intelligence: It plays a vital role in understanding the psychological state of the humans for making ethical decisions. In organizations, employees who have high emotional intelligence overcome mental stress and pressure by applying strong judgment and reasoning skills. The employee manages stress and anger by making the correct decisions that will contribute an ethical behavior in the organization. Emotional intelligence helps the managers motivate and inspire their subordinates in performing the activities, and increased emotional intelligence contributes to increased productivity and attrition rate.

Ethical concerns of emotional intelligence: 1. Ethics plays a vital role in explaining behavior such as emotional intelligence and personality development of the people in the society. 2. Moral behavior leads to reducing pain and suffering for people and increases positivity among the people. 3. Social activities for the welfare of the society, helping the underprivileged people contribute ethical behavior in the society. 4. Ethical decisions help treat behavioral problems such as drug addiction among the people. These decisions improve the quality of life and stabilize the work-life balance, (Feldman, 2017).


Feldman, R. (2017). Understanding Psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill Education.