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Please respond to the following two post 150 words, with one reference each

there are 2 posts, so 300 words total. add reference and in text citations


Public health nurses can acquire important knowledge, competencies, and skills to promote and protect the health of communities and populations by understanding and applying CBPR approaches. These competencies and skills are requisite for public health nurses to serve in contemporary, evolving roles with communities and populations that face complex, multifaceted challenges. such as public health threats that affect at-risk populations (e.g., lack of access to health care, emerging infectious diseases, poor environmental and living conditions, the epidemic of overweight and obesity, and the culture of substance use and abuse).

The nature of many threats is not unlike threats that faced PHN leaders in the early 20th century. They involve an appreciation of culture, economics, politics, and psychosocial problems as determinants of health and illness.

Public health nurses can enhance these skills by interacting with community members and using active communication to gain in-depth insights about the community’s assets and needs. Cultural competence helps public health nurses understand invisible factors in the community that promote health and prevent disease, such as assets, values, strengths, and special characteristics of the communities (Anderson & McFarlane, 2011). Perry and Hoffman (2010) demonstrated how PHNs can incorporate findings from their assessment into program development by having lively discussions and distributing information to develop the tailored program in the community. Marcus and colleagues (2004) showed how CBPR was used to develop a program to decrease HIV/AIDS in AA adolescents by creating a coalition between university-based investigators and church-based stakeholders. PHNs strategically utilized these partnerships to design and implement the program. These CBPR strategies were also utilized successfully to develop effective prevention and intervention programs (including both primary and secondary prevention programs) for cardiovascular disease prevention. Community dimensions of practice skills focus on communication, collaboration, and linkages between public health nurses and the many stakeholders in a community (Quad Council, 2011). These skills are central to PHNs’ participation in CBPR and enable a focus on the ecological context in developing health promotion programs. Again, there are examples of research that used a community participatory approach to foster these community practice skills. Andrews et al. (2007) illustrated community dimensions of practice skills when partnering with community stakeholders to develop multiple levels of interventions using an ecological framework that enhanced sustainability. In another study, PHNs built partnerships with community stakeholders (Hassouneh et al., 2011) to increase trust and to better utilize community resources in applying interventions such as training. As shown in these examples, public health nurses can use CBPR to enhance partnerships and empower community members as participants by including them in the decision-making processes of assessment and program planning (Andrews et al., 2007; Hassouneh et al., 2011; Perry & Hoffaman, 2010).


Agar, M.H. (1973). Ethnography and the addict. In Nadar, L., and Maretzki, T.W., (eds.) Cultural Illness and Health. Washington, DC: American Anthropological Association.

Agar, M.H. (1986). Speaking of ethnography. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications

American Nurses Association (ANA) (2007). Public health nursing: Scope and standards of practice. Washington, DC: American Nurses Publishing.

Anderson, E. T., & McFarlane, J. (2011). Community as partner: Theory and practice in nursing (6th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health / Lippincott Williams & Wilkins


Research has shown that culture has been absent from decision-making (Lewenson & Truglio, 2015). With that said Nurses and all health care professionals alike must be culturally competent in our diverse society. Patients ought to be allowed to practice and should not be ridiculed for their beliefs. Having been raised in a Hispanic household, I saw many herbal remedies being used instead of medication. For example, when one of us would have a case of pink eye my mother used to boil water and add periwinkle that was grown in our backyard. She would wash our eyes with this water, and it was so refreshing. And believe it or not it cured our pink eye. It is also practice, for our culture, to use linden tea for anxiety and sleep aid rather than use prescription drugs such as temazepam or alprazolam. Other factors that go beyond herbal remedies is not making eye contact, not welcoming touch, and wanting space/distance respected and this is something that nurses must be cognizant of when dealing with different cultures. One of the most challenging, I believe, is the patient’s refusal to take certain medications and reject certain treatment. Our job as nurses is to pass medications and educate our patients on medication management and treatments but we must also respect that it is their right to refuse. Diets fall under this category as well, nurses must be educated in food preferences and that certain cultures will not eat specific foods due to their cultural or religious beliefs of not eating pork or cow, for example. There is a myriad of cultural inclinations and beliefs that nurses must be cognizant of in order to practice trustworthy and satisfactory nursing. Cultural competence will improve health outcomes and quality of care.



Lewenson, S. B. & Truglio-Londrigan, M. (2015). Decision-Making in Nursing: Thoughtful Approaches to Leadership. (2nd ed.) Culture and Decision-Making (Pg. 75-89). ISBN:978- 1-4496-9150-9.